понедельник, 26 июня 2017 г.

Движения "открыватели".



Так называет эти специальные движения Жюльен Пайно, создатель и главный тренер "Strong Fit". Каждое из них направлено на отдельную мышечную группу тела, и служит для устранения имеющихся дисфункции в движении, повышения подвижности и подготовки к предстоящей тренировке. Весь представленный список следует выполнять до тренировки в составе общей разминки.

1) Трёхглавая мышца плеча (трицепс).

Это упражнение было разработано Жюльеном, чтобы помочь с улучшением положения удержания веса над головой. Мы все понимаем, что если в широчайших мышцах спины не будет полного диапазона движений, на них будет оказано негативное влияние, чтобы поднимать вес прямо над головой. Из-за чего могут произойти 2 вещи: нагрузка сместиться вперёд (как мы часто можем наблюдать в рывке штанги), либо для компенсации будет совершён чрезмерный изгиб в позвоночнике.

Цель "открывателя" трицепсов - заставить включить в работу широчайшие мышцы спины, пока руки находятся в вытянутом горизонтальном положении. Начинайте медленно двигаться с очень лёгкими гантелями, так как это очень агрессивно сказывается на плечах. Это движение будет создавать более лучшие, более сильные широчайшие мышцы и трицепсы, укреплять весь плечевой сустав.

2) Двуглавая мышца плеча (бицепс).

Чтобы повысить подвижность короткой головки бицепса, и грудных мышц, нужно сделать суперсет состоящий из нескольких движений. Для этого лягте на скамью для жима лёжа, поднимите согнутые ноги, наклоните голову к груди, и сделайте следующее:
- 5 сгибаний на бицепс с гантелями (ладони смотрят вверх);
- 5 сгибаний на бицепс с гантелями (пальцы смотрят вверх);
- 5 "молотков" на бицепс (ладони смотрят вверх);
- 5 "молотков" на бицепс (пальцы смотрят вверх).

Эксцентрическое движение должно быть медленным. Не должно быть никакого лишнего движения в запястьях. Их следует строго зафиксировать.

3) Плечевой пояс (передний, средний и задний пучок дельтовидных мышц; вращательная манжета плеча (надостная, подостная, малая круглая и подлопаточная мышца).

В связи с высоким риском травматизма плечевого пояса (самые распространённые травмы в Кроссфите приходятся на него) нужно не пренебрегать работай, над улучшением функции движения, и их здоровьем. "Открыватели" плечевого пояса помогут в положении различных снарядов над головой. В этом суперсете задействуются короткая головка бицепса, широчайшие мышцы спины и грудные мышцы.

Держите руки на одном уровне с ушами, а также локти и плечи, и избегайте любых шрагов. Выполните несколько подходов:
- 5 сгибаний на бицепс гантелей на вытянутых руках (ладони смотрят вверх);
- 5 махов вытянутых рук с гантелями вверх (ладони смотрят вверх);
- 5 сгибаний на бицепс гантелей на вытянутых руках (большие пальцы смотрят вверх);
- 5 махов вытянутых рук с гантелями вверх (большие пальцы смотрят вверх).

4) Бедро (мышцы задней поверхности бедра).

Идея данного "открывателя" заключается в модели шарнира, т.е. повороте в бедре без какого-либо сгибания/разгибания позвоночника. При этом плечи должны всегда двигаться в зависимости от бёдер, если одно движется, а другое нет - вы неправильно используете свой позвоночник. Для лучшей активации задней поверхности бедра колени чуть-чуть наклонены вперёд , но не слишком выступают.

Сделайте (как показано в ролике) таких 3 очень медленных, и подконтрольных движений с грифом.

5) Мышцы живота (косые мышцы пресса).

Лягте на землю, положите гирю ниже области пупка. Совершайте наклоны головы к груди, при этом сильно напрягая мышцы живота. Если вы всё делаете правильно, то почувствуете активацию как грудных мышц, так и задней поверхности бедра. Внимательно подойти к выбору веса гири, так как вы должны продержаться 1 минуту.

 
YouTube3:33
Трёхглавая мышца плеча (трицепс)
 
YouTube3:48
Двухглавая мышцы плеча (бицепс)
 
YouTube3:50
Плечевой пояс (передний, средний и задний пучок дельтовидных мышц; вращательная манжета плеча (надостная, подостная, малая кругл
 
YouTube4:49
Бедро (мышцы задней поверхности бедра)
 
YouTube1:25
Мышцы живота (косые мышцы пресса)
 

воскресенье, 25 июня 2017 г.

Shoulder Rehab, Wendler Style

 

Shoulder-rehab
I've received many questions about how I handled my recent shoulder rehab. While in no way am I qualified to dispense a rehab protocol to anyone – I'm not a doctor or physical therapist – I will share the approach that worked for me.
Still, I ask that you take what I'm about to say with a horse testicle-sized grain of salt and get your aches and pains checked out in person by someone legitimately qualified. I want to make this very clear as there are too many unqualified people in this industry that deem themselves rehab experts and do so without any sort of responsibility to what they prescribe.
So what made me decide to handle my own rehab? First, the closest therapist that I felt comfortable visiting was a pain in the ass to get to. I live in a rural part of Ohio and sitting in morning traffic (or any traffic) is not how I want to spend any portion of my day.
Second, I wanted the challenge.
Before the surgery, I spent a couple of months researching through the internet and talking to others who had shoulder surgery similar to mine (labrum and rotator cuff repair).
I printed off everything and anything I could find and highlighted similarities. Everyone had a slightly different spin on the rehab but there are always going to be things that are similar. These were the things that I was most interested in.
When talking to people who had similar surgeries and rehabbed them, both successfully and unsuccessfully, I found a common theme – and this was the mantra that kept my head on straight during the entire time (and still does today):
  • "Don't rush the front end of rehab."
What this means is there's no medal, reward, or honor in being the first to bench press 315. Your body has to be given the chance to recover and repair itself. Rushing through and accelerating the rehab process isn't going to make the problem heal itself any quicker.
Take it slow in the beginning and let the surgeon's work do its job. There's plenty of time to press after it heals. Try to be Superman and chances are you're going to end up back in the operating room.
  • To make it simple: be patient.
About a month out from the surgery, my wife helped tweak my diet to remove some of the inflammatory foods. I felt that this was going to give me a leg up on my recovery and instill some good dietary habits. I stuck to a very simple diet that most of you are familiar with: grilled chicken, steak, rice, and vegetables. I did enjoy a few cocktails but those were cut down dramatically. I'm no saint.
My supplements were also chosen to help my recovery but again, nothing revolutionary. I took Flameout™, Vitamin C, a multivitamin, krill oil, ubiquinol, and astaxanthin. I took these supplements with every meal. This was at my wife's suggestion and it seemed to help the recovery process.
The final thing that I did before my surgery was make a pact with myself. "Nothing stupid for 4 weeks." This was very hard to do because there are many days that you feel great and think you can push it.
But I had a good support system that kept my head on straight. Both my wife and Will Ramsey (whose dad is an orthopedic surgeon) kept me honest and reminded me daily to never get too far ahead of myself.
Finally, and most importantly, I wrote down goals. This helped me guide my rehab every step of the way. If you don't know where you are and where you want to go, you'll just wander aimlessly through life. So I had to have concrete goals and an honest assessment of where I was.
The simple goal was to be able to press overhead and bench press pain-free. But really, that wasn't going to cut it for me. You need to have actual performance goals, or at least I do, to make it worthwhile.
  • My big goal was to be able to overhead press 135 pounds correctly after 6 months. I've known many people who've done this 6 weeks after the surgery but I wanted to be patient. This goal kept in line with the mantra of not rushing the front end of surgery.

After the Surgery

wendler-shoulder-rehab

Weeks 1-4

These weeks pretty much sucked. I slept in a chair and was given a pain killer regimen that would've made a rhinoceros loopy. Sleeping in a chair, even a huge, comfy chair, is not comfortable. I spent most of every night listening to music and watching movies. I made sure to order every movie station that was available to me and caught up on some of the worst movies known to man.
During these weeks I did the following rehab:
  • Ice. I placed a big bag of ice on my shoulder about 6-8 times a day, for 30 minutes at a time. I tried using a special shoulder harness that pumped cold water through it but it never got cold enough. So I invested in some gallon Ziploc bags and those seemed to work great.
  • Sling. I stayed in my sling all 4 weeks. There are many that ditch the sling as soon as they can, but I saw no reason to stay out of it – especially in public. It seems silly but Mark Rippetoe emphasized that I always wear the sling in public, no matter what. It lets everyone know to stay away from you.
  • Diet and supplementation. I made sure to eat, even when the pain killers killed my appetite. It didn't have to be a very large meal, just some protein, some carbs, and vegetables. I made sure to eat 4 times a day. Supplementation was continued as discussed.
  • Passive movement. All movement performed was passive and through a pain-free range of motion. Passive movement means that my wife held my wrist and elbow and moved my arm for me. I did no work. She'd move my arm to the front, side, and all areas in between. Make sure the person doing this holds the wrist and elbow tightly as you don't want any sag in the arm.
This was done three times per day for 1-3 sets of 10 reps in each direction and started the day after the surgery. During the first two weeks, the motion is pretty limited so don't get discouraged. Do not take it too far.
  • Safety squat. I invested in a safety squat bar prior to surgery and was able to do some lighter squat sessions. I made sure not to stress my shoulder at all and this gave me some tremendous mental relief. I didn't start this until about week three.
  • Summary of first four weeks: Ice, wear your sling, eat healthy, proper supplements, and all movement must be passive. Do not try to be a super hero these four weeks.

Weeks 5-6

Most therapists recommend you stay in the sling for 6 weeks. At about the 5-week mark I spent half of my day out of the sling. My shoulder felt fine but I also didn't want to take any chances.
I also made sure to sleep in my sling, although I was out of the chair and back in my bed. I didn't want to sleep on my shoulder the wrong way and screw it up. The icing continued but was lessened to 3 times per day. Diet and supplementation continued.
During these weeks the following rehab was done:
  • Movement Work. This was based entirely on how I felt that day. If the shoulder hurt and I felt awful, the movement would be all passive. This was especially true in the morning sessions. If the shoulder was feeling good, I'd perform the movement by myself. I would do front raises, L-raises, and rear raises – all for sets of 10 reps.
  • The Rip Fix. To help prepare my shoulder for pressing and strengthen my rotator cuff, I performed the following exercise, courtesy of the brain of Mark Rippetoe.
On my chin-up bar, I hung a sled strap that has two looped ends. Through these looped ends, I hung a 45-pound barbell. (See pictures)
jim-wendler-shoulder-rehab
I grabbed the barbell with a narrow grip, flexed my triceps, and walked forward until the barbell was overhead. I pulled the barbell overhead and squeezed my traps and held it there for a few seconds before slowly returning to the starting position, making sure to keep the triceps flexed and arms locked.
On week 5, I did this 1-2 times per day for sets of 5 to 10 reps. On week 6, I did the same routine, but once I got to the top I'd lower the barbell (as if I was lowering a press) until I felt pain. At that point, I'd press the barbell back up into the straps and hold it. I did sets of 5 reps of this modified press. Again, I'd do the modified press 1-2 times per day for 1-3 sets of 5 reps.
I continued to use the safety squat bar for lower body training. I didn't do anything too heavy or hard during this time.
  • Summary of weeks five and six: Ice, continue diet and supplementation, movement can be both passive and aggressive, use a barbell "sling" to help prepare your body for pressing.

Week 7 and On

At this point my shoulder could move through a full range of motion pain-free and I knew it was time to start training again. But I wasn't about to start maxing out and killing myself.
I invested in two more bars, the EFS Swiss Bar and the Buffalo Bar. The neutral hand position on the Swiss Bar allowed me to press and bench press pain-free; at this point a straight bar aggravated the shoulder but the Swiss Bar allowed me to press without pain.
The Buffalo Bar is a slightly cambered squat bar that allowed me to squat with no shoulder discomfort. While the safety squat bar was good, it never feels like a true squat to me.
Using the 5/3/1 program, I began training with a ridiculously light training max. I used 95 pounds as 65% on my bench press, thus giving me a training max of 145.
With the standing press, I just used the un-weighted Swiss bar for sets of 5 reps until I felt comfortable.
After a few weeks, I noticed that my form wasn't great on either lift so I took a step back and made sure that each rep I did was complete. I paused at the top and bottom of each rep, not caring about the quantity of reps, but rather the quality of reps. Since I adopted this, my shoulder has gotten much better. This made me realize that 5 great reps are better than 10 fast, sloppy reps.
My pressing was done as perfect as I could – pressing the barbell overhead and pulling my head through. The bench press was done with a slight pause at the top and the bottom.
Yeah, yeah, I know, this is shit that we're all told a million times when we first start lifting. But the quest for more reps or more weight makes it easy to cheat. Then you get hurt and realize you should've listened.
I also began doing chin-ups. The first couple of times, my wife held my feet to take some of the load off. But after a couple sessions, I was able to do clean sets of 5-10 reps, meaning the reps were done with a full pause at the bottom and a strong finish at the top.
I did chins 2-3 times per week. There was no leg swing, half reps, or "kipping" – the reps were done with purpose (like you're supposed to do). Leave the heroics for the wannabe's.
Deadlifts were done very light and all with a double overhand grip, with straps. This lasted about a month, until I felt that my repaired shoulder could handle the supination.
I tried squatting with a straight bar and it felt okay but the Buffalo Bar is still used to remove any chances. I'm in no rush. I still use the Swiss Bar for all pressing movements and will continue to do so. Whether I go back to a straight bar is entirely based on if I'll ever compete again. At this point, that's not on my radar.

Today and Beyond

It's now about 6 months post surgery and I have the following numbers to my name:
  • Press – 185 pounds for 5 reps
  • Bench press – 220 pounds for 11 reps, 300 pounds for 1 rep
All these lifts were very easy and I could've done more, but I have more goals to conquer and plenty of time to reach them. I have goals set for September and for the end of the year. I have no doubt I'll reach them as the plan that I laid out is simple and precise.
If you get anything out of this article, please take this to heart: have a goal, have a slow, methodical plan to get there, and be patient. You'd be surprised at what happens when you make this a cornerstone of your life.

The Upper-Body Exercise You're Missing

Tip: The Upper-Body Exercise You're Missing

Add this to your training and boost your upper-body strength, core strength, and even your bench press PR.

The-upper-body-exercise-you're-missing

Push-Ups on the Rings

As much as I love the barbell, it can be very unforgiving on the joints. So the variety of angles you can get on gymnastic rings (or similar) is phenomenal for the health of your elbows.
When you look at how many different angles of pronation and supination there are, combined with elbow flexion and extension, it only makes sense that these angles have to be explored and strengthened. It's hands-down the best way to avoid an overuse injury.
The strength you'll build on the rings also carries over to all of your pushing movements, including bench and dips. So the ring push-up could be the supplementary exercise you've been missing to smash that personal best you've been chasing.
You'll also build core stability with ring push-ups, and they're certainly more fun to do than planks.

Ring Push-Ups

  1. Set the rings low enough so that performing push-ups is challenging, yet you can comfortably hit 12-15 reps.
  2. Start with your arms fully locked out and externally rotated (palms forward).
  3. Turn your hands inward so that the palms face each other.
  4. Keep your elbows tucked into your sides and start to descend.
  5. Ensure you have a full range of motion at the bottom. Aim to feel a stretch at the front of your shoulders/pecs.
  6. Press back up, maintaining your midline stability, and still keeping the elbows close to the body.
  7. Lock out your elbows at the top. Externally rotate the arms again before repeating your next rep.
When you can comfortably hit twenty reps with the rings quite close to the floor, progress the movement by elevating your feet. These are a great drop set coupled up with bench press. A heavy bench press of five reps with a drop set of twelve ring push-ups is a great way to mix them together. Do three to five sets. With the ring push-up, it's quality AND quantity.

Strict Press vs. Push Press Grip

Tip: Strict Press vs. Push Press Grip

The way you hold the bar can make a huge difference in how much you can hoist overhead. Check this out.

Strict-press-vs-push-press-grip

Strict Press Vs. Push Press Grip

The Strict Barbell Press

It's one of the greatest exercises for overhead strength development. It allows you to move a lot of weight over a large range of motion.
When you're doing it, make sure your wrists aren't overextended. Why? Because it'll either keep you from lifting the weight or it'll place tremendous strain on your wrists.

The Barbell Push Press

It has the ability to let you press MORE weight, although due to the nature of the exercise, the range of motion is shorter. Because of the hip drive it becomes more of a full body exercise, which is fantastic for overall strength development. And if you add some slow negatives from the top of each rep it can have some carryover to your strict press.
Depending on your level of flexibility you may find you struggle having a closed grip in a front rack position (with your elbows up in front of the bar). The best way to get the most out of this exercise is to relax your grip and let your body do the work.
If you've never done Olympic lifting before, it'll be harder to adjust your technique and allow the hips do the work rather than your arms, but it's definitely worth the time investment and it'll get your numbers up.

One Move for Indestructible Shoulders

Tip: One Move for Indestructible Shoulders

Add this exercise to your workout to strengthen joints, build muscle, and increase range of motion.

One-move-for-indestructible-shoulders

Strong, Functional Shoulders

Big strong shoulders bring joy and happiness. But with the extra punishment we give our shoulders, it's really important to keep them balanced and happy. Face-pulls are great, but I prefer to do things that will:
  • Strengthen joints
  • Build muscle
  • Increase range of motion
This exercise hits all three.

Dumbbell Shoulder Rotations

I was originally taught these by a martial artist for conditioning for old-style wrestling. Those guys have indestructible shoulders. Adding this exercise will fill in the gaps in your training so you can avoid tightness and injury. Also, when you can start to go heavier with it, it becomes a great exercise for trunk stabilization.
Start off light. Keep the dumbbell as close to your head as possible and aim for 3 sets of 10 reps with each direction. As for progressive loading, there's no rush. Increasing by 2kg per month is more than enough and over time you can actually make it part of your programming, making them heavier with a smaller rep range.

суббота, 24 июня 2017 г.

A Sequence of (mostly) Active Shoulder Stretches

A Sequence of (mostly)
Active Shoulder Stretches
for Improving Shoulder Flexibility and Strength

The following set of active shoulder stretches can be done as a sequence. Most of the stretches are muscle assisted and so the effect is to strengthen the arms and shoulders as well as stretch them. And so you could think of these as shoulder stretching exercises.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, reaching one arm up, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, hands clasped and palms pressing upwards, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling one arm to the side, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling one arm to the inside, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, triceps stretch,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling hands apart to add tension, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm to the side active shoulder stretch, pulling one arm back while holding on to upper arm with other hand, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Outer shoulder stretch, crossing arms in front of chest with elbows bent, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Outer shoulder stretch, crossing arms in front of chest with elbows straihgt,neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Eagle arm position shoulder stretch, forearms tipped to one side.  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead external rotation stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Penguin shoulder stretching exercise for internal rotation,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
From down position pulling one arm to the side against resistance to stretch outer shoulder of resisting arm, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
From down position pulling one arm to the opposite side behind the back  against resistance to stretch outer shoulder of resisting arm,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Reaching arms back from down position to stretch shoulders, hands not clasped,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Hands clasped and arms stretching back from down position, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Reverse prayer shoulder stretching exercise,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
High penguin shoulder stretch, wrist to chin external rotation shoulder stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
For more yoga arm positions read Yoga Shoulder Stretches
For seated stretches read Arm Stretches

Arm Overhead Shoulder Stretches

Single Arm Overhead Reach

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, reaching one arm up, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, reaching one arm up, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
When stretching your shoulders it can be very helpful to feel and operate your ribs, shoulder, elbow and hand. In this simple reaching exercise start with the arm relaxed, then reach up with the same-side ribs up, then your shoulder. Make the arm feel long by straightening your elbow and reaching with your fingers. Smoothly relax and repeat.
After practicing one arm at a time, try it with both arms simultaneously reaching up.

Hands Clasped Palm Press

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, hands clasped and palms pressing upwards, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, hands clasped and palms pressing upwards, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, hands clasped and palms pressing upwards, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This exercise can also be used to exercise the rotation of your forearms. Start with your hands clasped in front of your chest with palms facing back. Turn your palms outwards as you lift your arms overhead. Straighten your elbows when your arms are over your head and reach up with ribs and shoulders. Return to the start and because this shoulder stretch has an asymmetrical hand position, switch the interlock of your fingers.

Stretching the Side of the Shoulders with the Arms Up

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling one arm to the side, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling one arm to the inside, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
For this over the head shoulder stretch reach an arm overhead with the elbow straight. Grab the forearm with the other hand. Pull the straight arm out to the side to stretch the shoulder of the grabbing hand. Then pull the straight arm inwards to stretch its shoulder.
For both of these actions keep your neck feeling long and your chest open. (This actually applies for most shoulder stretches.)
For both variations, gradually resist the stretch so that your arms feel like they are working against each other. 

Overhead Triceps Stretch

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, triceps stretch,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, triceps stretch,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Since the arms are already overhead you can use this opportunity to stretch your triceps. Grab the bent elbow of one arm and pull it inwards. To vary the stretch (and exercise the external rotation muscles of the arm being stretched) try to rotate the arm being stretched so that the forearm is more rearwards.

Arms Overhead Shoulder Reactivation Exercise

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, pulling hands apart to add tension, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This isn't so much a shoulder stretch as it is an activation exercise. With elbows straight and wrists crossed, pull your arms outwards against each other. You'll be exercising the trapezius. This type of exercise can be helpful for shoulder flexibility since you are practicing muscle control near the limits of most peoples range of motion. Work at smoothly pulling outwards then smoothly relaxing.

Horizontal Plane Shoulder Stretches 

Choke Hold Shoulder Stretch

Arm to the side active shoulder stretch, pulling one arm back while holding on to upper arm with other hand, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm to the side active shoulder stretch, pulling one arm back while holding on to upper arm with other hand, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This shoulder stretch looks a little like a choke hold. Start with one arm out to the side but slightly forwards and with its elbow straight. Grab onto the upper arm with the other hand. Then pull the straight arm back. 
You'll be stretching the rear of the shoulder of the bent arm. You'll also be exercising the straight arm.

Hug Yourself Shoulder Stretch

Outer shoulder stretch, crossing arms in front of chest with elbows bent, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
With elbows bent cross your arms in front of yourself and grab opposite shoulders with both hands as if giving yourself a hug. Use your fingers to draw your elbows past each other. 
Repeat with the other arm on top.

Straight Elbow Hug Yourself Stretch

Outer shoulder stretch, crossing arms in front of chest with elbows straihgt,neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This is like the previous stretch except you do it with elbows straight.
You may find that your pectoralis major cramps up in this stretch. You may find it helpful to focus on spreading your shoulder blades.

Eagle Arm Position Shoulder Stretches

Eagle arm position shoulder stretch, forearms vertical (viewed from front), neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Eagle arm position shoulder stretch, forearms tipped to one side.  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
The two previous stretches can actually be used as substitutes or preparations for the eagle pose arm position. If you can actually get your arms into eagle pose then the door is open to more shoulder stretching possibilities. With forearms vertical (viewed from the front) you can tilt your arms to one side or the other. Find the side that gives you the best stretch. For me this means pulling towards the top-arm-side.

Safety Helmet Shoulder Stretch

Arm overhead external rotation stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead external rotation stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead external rotation stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This shoulder stretch can be used to work the external rotators of the shoulders with the arms overhead or while pressing the arms overhead. With elbows bent bring your elbows together in front of your face. Keep the elbows pressing together, press your forearms backwards over your head. From there keep the elbows pressed together and try to separate your hands by rotating your upper arms externally.

Penguin Shoulder Stretch Variation

In this penguin yoga pose variation the back on one hand is against the waist with elbow bend and pointing forwards. Use the other hand to pull the elbow inwards. This is acts rougthly as an internal rotation shoulder stretch.
Penguin shoulder stretching exercise for internal rotation,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This variation of penguin shoulder stretch can be done while standing. Place a hand against the side of your waist or hips with the elbow bent and pointing out to the side. Use your free hand to pull the elbow inwards.
Here again you may find it helpful to protract (spread) the shoulder blade of the arm being stretched so that the outer tip of your collar bones move forwards. 
You could also do both arms at the same time and use the muscles of the shoulder to pull the elbows inwards. In this case you'll be using muscles at the front of your shoulders (and possibly the subscapularis) while stretching the back of your shoulders and possibly your rhomboids.

Arm Behind the Back Shoulder Stretches

Arm Behind the Back Lateral Stretch

From down position pulling one arm to the side against resistance to stretch outer shoulder of resisting arm, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
From down position pulling one arm to the opposite side behind the back  against resistance to stretch outer shoulder of resisting arm,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Repeating some tricks from the arm overhead shoulder stretching set, you can repeat the process with these two arm behind the back stretches, pulling to the straight-arm-side and then to the bent-arm-side to stretch the outside of the shoulder with elbow straight and bent respectively.

Binding Preparation Shoulder Stretch

Arm overhead shoulder stretch, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Arm overhead shoulder stretch, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This shoulder stretch can be used as a preparation for binding poses like half bound lotus or the variation of side angle where you hook your hand on the thigh from behind your back.
Reach an arm behind your back and hook it into the palm of the other hand. Use that hand to pull the hooking hand forwards. As you can do in a bind, try to resist with the arm being stretched. 

Rearward Arm Stretch

Reaching arms back from down position to stretch shoulders, hands not clasped,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Reaching arms back from down position to stretch shoulders, hands not clasped,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
For this shoulder stretching exercise, reach arms backwards then work at retracting the shoulder blades (pulling them inwards) while at the same time pulling the arms inwards. To get the arms higher, drop the front of your chest and pull downwards and inwards on the front of your shoulders.

Stretching Arms Back with Hands Clasped 

Hands clasped and arms stretching back from down position, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Hands clasped and arms stretching back from down position, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Hands clasped and arms stretching back from down position, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
This could be called Dwikonasana or the "The shoulder stretch used in prasaritta padottanasana C". If you can actually clasp the hands for this pose (with elbows straight) you work the arms in a different way than in the previous stretch. Because the hands are clasped you don't have to use the rhomboids to pull the shoulder blades inwards. You can actually work the opposite muscles by pulling the hands outwards as if trying to pull the hands apart. Notice the shoulder position changes in the last two pictures. In the first picture the fronts of my shoulders are ope, in the next picture the fronts of my shoulders are moving downwards as is my chest.

Reverse Prayer Shoulder Stretch

Reverse prayer shoulder stretching exercise,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Reverse prayer shoulder stretching exercise,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
Reverse prayer shoulder stretching exercise,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
If you can get into reverse prayer position you can play with it to vary the shoulder stretch. To get your hands higher try dropping the front of your chest and spreading your shoulder blades. You can also try pressing the finger tips into each other so that the palms move away from each other. Or try moving the hands to one side.

High Penguin Shoulder Stretch

Wrist to chin external rotation shoulder stretching exercise,  neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.
High penguin shoulder stretch, wrist to chin external rotation shoulder stretching exercise, neil keleher, sensational yoga poses.

Because of the similarity in technique to penguin shoulder stretch I'm calling this "High Penguin Shoulder Stretch". Place a hand against your chin or cheek bone with elbow pointing forwards. Use the other hand to pull the elbow inwards while resisting the hand with the chin or cheekbone. 
With the elbow pulled inwards towards your chest, you can use the chin to push the hand outwards so that you stretch the shoulder in external rotation.
You may find that this is a nice counterpose after reverse prayer.