понедельник, 29 августа 2016 г.

Why Training Your Tendons Is Important (and 11 Ways to Do It)

 

Tendon Strength FinalBuilding muscle is simple. Lift heavy things, rest, make sure you eat enough food, sleep, repeat. For a beginner, progress is linear and relatively sudden. You get quick feedback: your muscles get more defined, you look a little leaner, you can lift a little more each session, friends and co-workers notice and comment on the changes. New striations pop up, clothes fit differently, you feel more capable dealing with the physical world. You’re hungrier and heavier, yet still manage to drop belt sizes. All is well.
Muscle isn’t the only thing you’re impacting when you lift heavy things, though. You’re also imposing stress on your tendons and demanding an adaptive response. You’re training your tendons, too.
Yet because tendons receive less blood flow than muscle, and blood brings the nutrients and satellite cells used to repair and rebuild damaged tissue, they take a lot longer to respond to training than muscle. In one study, it took at least 2 months of training to induce structural changes in the Achilles’ tendon, including increases in collagen synthesis and collagen density. Other studies have found that it takes “weeks to months” of training to increase tendon stiffness. Meanwhile, we see structural changes to muscle tissue with just eight days of training.
This basic physiological fact shouldn’t impede our progress and tissue health, but it does.
Our bodies “expect” a lifetime of constant, varied movement. From a very early age, most humans throughout history were constantly active. They weren’t exercising or training, per se, but they were doing all the little movements all the time that prepare the body and prime the tendons to handle heavier, more intense loads and movements: bending and squatting and walking and twisting and climbing and playing and building. It was a mechanical world. The human body was a well-oiled machine, lubed and limber from daily use and well-prepared for occasional herculean efforts.
We don’t have that today. It’s the age of information. And though we spend most of our day in the digital realm, clacking away on keyboards and caressing touch screens, we retain the ancient need for physical training ingrained in our DNA. So we go from couch potato to budding powerlifter, from desk jockey to CrossFitter. But unlike our predecessors, we haven’t applied the lube of daily lifelong movement that makes those intense physical efforts safe. Everyone seems to be lifting weights nowadays, but few have the foundation of healthy, strong, durable connective tissue necessary for safe, effective training.
Just look at kids. The health of their connective tissue has three main advantages over adults:
They practice constant varied movement. They’re flopping down in distress because you turned the TV off. They’re climbing the bookcase, crawling like a dog, leaping like a frog, dancing to every bit of music they hear, jumping from objects twice their height.
They’re still young. Kids simply haven’t been alive long enough to accumulate the bad habits that characterize sedentary life and ruin our connective tissues. They aren’t broken yet.
Their connective tissue is highly vascular. Early connective tissue has a dense network of capillaries, meaning it receives ample blood flow. It regenerates quickly and has a faster response to stress. Mature tendons are mostly avascular and receive very little blood. To stay healthy and heal and respond to stress, they require diffusion of the synovial fluid filling our joints. Vascular blood flow is passive and subconscious; it’ll happen whether you move or will it to or not. Synovial fluid only diffuses through movement. You have to consciously move your joints to get the synovial fluid flowing.
So what can we do?
“Just move constantly like a six year old” is nice and all, but not everyone can crawl through the office, practice broad jumping across the board room, or run the stairwells with a software engineer on their back. Besides, we have a lot of catching up to do. More concerted, targeted efforts are required to overcome a lifetime of linear, limited movement and tons of sitting.
Before we make any decisions, let’s understand exactly what tendons do.
  1. They attach muscles to bones. It is through tendons that muscles transmit force and make movement possible. Contracting your muscles pulls on the tendons, which yanks on the bone, producing movement.
  2. Tendons also provide an elastic response, a stretch-shortening recoil effect that helps you jump, run, lift heavy things, and absorb impacts. Think of it like a rubber band.
Tendons have two primary properties that determine how they function:
Stiffness
The degree to which a tendon can withstand elongation and maintain form and function when placed under stress. Contrary to how we usually think about stiffness, a stiff tendon can help us transmit more force and be more stable in our movements. It takes a lot more force to get a stiff tendon to elongate, but they reward your efforts with a powerful recoil.
Stiff tendons are stiff. More elastic tendons are compliant. We need a mix of compliant and stiff tendons, depending on the tendon’s location and job.
Hysteresis
The efficiency of the recoil response. If you waste a lot of energy in the rebound, you have high hysteresis. If your recoil is “snappy,” your tendons have low hysteresis. Low is better.
Other things matter, of course, like where the tendon “attaches” to the muscle. The farther it attaches from the axis of rotation, the stronger you’ll be (imagine holding the baseball bat in the center or the handle and trying to swing; which grip position will allow greater force?). Another is length; longer tendons have greater elastic potential than shorter ones, all else being equal. But that’s determined by genetics and out of our control.
What can you do to optimize these properties? There are some possibilities.

1. Eccentrics

Many studies indicate that eccentric exercises (lowering the weight) are an effective way to treat tendon injuries. In one trial, ex-runners in their early 40s with chronic Achilles’ tendonitis were split into two groups. One group had conventional therapy (NSAIDs, rest, physical therapy, orthotics), the other did eccentric exercises. Exercisers would do a calf raise (concentric) on the uninjured foot and slowly lower themselves on the injured foot (eccentric heel drop) for 3 sets of 15 reps, twice a day, every day, for 12 weeks. Once this got easy and pain-free, they were told to increase the resistance with weighted backpacks. After 12 weeks, all the ex-runners in the exercise group were able to resume running, while those in the conventional group had a 0% success rate and eventually needed surgery.
If heel dips can heal Achilles’ tendinopathy and single-leg decline eccentric squats can heal patellar tendinopathy, I’d wager that eccentric movements can strengthen already healthy tendons. Any tendon should respond to eccentrics. Downhill walking, slowly lowering oneself to the bottom pushup position, eccentric bicep or wrist curls; anything that places a load on the muscle-tendon complex while lengthening it should improve the involved tendons.

2. Plyometrics

Explosive movements utilizing the recoil response of the tendons can improve that response. In one study, 14 weeks of plyometrics (squat jumps, drop jumps, countermovement jumps, single and double-leg hedge jumps) reduced tendon hysteresis. The trained group had better, more efficient tendon recoil responses than the control group. Tendons didn’t get any bigger or longer; they just got more efficient at transmitting elastic energy. A previous 8-week plyometric study was unable to produce any changes in tendon function or hysteresis, so you need to give it adequate time to adapt.

3. Explosive isometrics

Explosive isometric training involves trying to perform an explosive movement against an immoveable force, like pushing a car with the parking break on, trying to throw a kick with your leg restrained by a belt, or placing your fist against the wall and trying to “punch” forward. In one study, explosive isometric calf training 2-3 times a week for 6 weeks was just as good as plyometric calf training at increasing calf tendon stiffness and jump height while being a lot safer and imposing less impact to the joints.

4. Volume-increasing exercises

Volume clearly matters. Just look at the beefy fingers of free climber Alex Honnold, who relies on them every day to support his bodyweight. Those aren’t big finger muscles. They’re thick cords of connective tissue. Pic not enough? In performance climbers with at least 15 years experience, the finger joints and tendons are 62-76% thicker than those of non-climbers. And a study showed that the extremely common crimp hold—where all five finger tips are used to hold a ledge—exerts incredible forces on the finger connective tissues, spurring adaptation. So if you’re up to the challenge, rock climbing (indoor or outdoor) is a great way to increase tendon volume.

5. Intensity-focused exercises

You have to actually stress the tendons. We see this in the eccentric decline squat study mentioned earlier, where decline squats (which place more stress on the patellar tendon) were more effective than flat squats (which place less stress on the patellar tendon) for fixing patellar tendinitis. In another study, women were placed on a controlled bodyweight squat program. They got stronger, their musculature improved, and their tendons grew more elastic, but they failed to improve tendon stiffness, increase tendon elastic storage capacity, or stem the age-related decline in tendon hysteresis. The resistance used and speed employed simply weren’t high enough to really target the connective tissue. A recent study confirms that to induce adaptive changes in tendon, you must apply stress that exceeds the habitual value of daily activities. So, while walking, gardening, and general puttering about is great for you, it’s probably not enough to coax an adaptive response out of your ailing tendons. You need to increase the magnitude of the applied stress through tinkering with volume, speed, resistance, range of motion, and the proportion of eccentric vs. concentric movement.

6. Full range of motion

Deeper, longer, farther is probably best. Consider the squat. An ass-to-grass front squat, where the hip crease drops below the knees, will stretch/stress the patellar tendon that attaches the quad to the shin bone to a greater extent than squatting to just above parallel.

7. Avoid pain, seek mild discomfort

Tendon discomfort is okay. Stress isn’t comfortable. Tendon pain is not and should be avoided. You want just enough discomfort to provoke a training stimulus, but not outright pain.

8. Daily practice

Think about—and train—your connective tissue every day. That could range from random sets of eccentric heel drops and static squat holds done throughout the day. I like Dan John’s “Easy Strength” program, where you basically pick a few movements to do each day—every day—with a fairly manageable weight. Front squat, Romanian deadlift, and pullups, for example. 2 sets of 5 reps each day for each exercise. Only add weight when it feels “too easy.”

9. Don’t rush; take it easy

Pick a load and stick to it until it gets easy. In a pair of incredible appearances on Robb Wolf’s Paleo Solution Podcast, Christopher Sommer of Gymnastic Bodies explains how he puts together a tendon-centric program for an athlete. He has them stick with the same weight for 8-12 weeks. The first few weeks are hard. The weight feels heavy. At 4 weeks, it’s a lot easier but still a challenge. At 8 weeks, you start feeling like it’s too easy. And that’s where the tendon-building magic happens. By 12 weeks, what felt tough when you started is now “baby weight.” Your muscles are stronger and your tendons have had enough time to build collagen density. You’re able to manhandle the weight without a problem.
Like I just mentioned above, another example is Dan John’s “Easy Strength,” which has you lift almost every day using light-moderate loads, only adding weight when 2 sets of 5 reps becomes really easy. You won’t see the rapid progression of Starting Strength, but it’ll also be easier on your body, prepare your tendons for higher loads, and remove the need for a gallon of milk a day.

10. Partial reps

Early 20th century strongman George Jowett developed a program for “strengthening the sinews” that involved partial reps of extremely heavy weights. He focused on the final 4-6 inches before lockout of the primary exercises, like bench press, overhead press, squat, and deadlift.

11. Massage and myofascial work

Massages can increase blood flow to the otherwise avascular tendons. Self myofascial release using foam rollers or lacrosse balls (or even the good ol’ elbow) is worth doing, too.
Building connective tissue strength isn’t just for preventing injuries. It will make you stronger, too. Every person aged 16 to 28 knows about “old man strength.” It’s that phenomenon of otherwise unimpressive looking old guys crushing your hand when shaking it, being immovable statues down low in pickup basketball games, and generally tossing you around like you were a child in any feat of strength. What explains it? It’s not the muscles (yours are bigger). It’s not the speed (you’re younger and faster). It’s gotta be the connective tissue made thick and strong from decades of hard living.
And so in real-world, full-body movements and compound exercises like squats, deadlifts, pullups, and gymnastics work, healthy and strong tendons increase performance. They make you stronger, more explosive, more powerful, and more resilient. They allow your big impressive muscles to actually express themselves and reach their full potential. A healthy tendon is a conduit for your muscle to express its power.
Muscles are cool and all, but don’t neglect the tendons. Feel the stretch and when you feel some weirdness in a tendon, back off. Throw in some eccentric movements and explosive isometrics. Practice hops and broad jumps. Do a joint mobility drill regularly, and consider adding a morning movement practice. Don’t feel guilty for not going hard all the time. Get really comfortable with the weight and the movements before increasing the intensity.
There’s more to the tendon story, but these are a few easily implementable suggestions for improving your tendons with physical training.
Thanks for reading, everyone. How do you train your tendons? Have you ever considered such a thing?


Read more: http://www.marksdailyapple.com/why-training-your-tendons-is-important-and-11-ways-to-do-it/#ixzz4IkcLCCAi

среда, 24 августа 2016 г.

Строгие отжимания в стойке

Содержание этой статьи может сильно взбудоражить неокрепшие умы некоторых товарищей, поэтому, предваряя ее, хочу сказать, что до того как стать мануальным терапевтом я был Кроссфитером. И остаюсь ими по сей день. Обоими. Я не из тех людей, кто просто сидит и бесполезно критикует Кроссфит. Я стараюсь делать его лучше.
Dr. Patrick Ryan
Dr. Patrick Ryan
Так вот мои 7 причин стать сильнее и делать отжимания в стойке на руках строго, вместо того чтобы использовать киппинг. Итак, по порядку:
  1. Первый шейный позвонок
  2. Второй шейный позвонок
  3. Третий шейный позвонок
  4. Четвертый шейный позвонок
  5. Пятый шейный позвонок
  6. Шестой шейный позвонок
  7. Седьмой шейный позвонок
А также соединительные ткани, диски, связки и нервы, имеющие отношение к этим позвонкам.

Немного анатомии 

Давайте совсем чуть-чуть поговорим об анатомии, не станем игнорировать этот аспект. Для этого взгляните на картинку ниже.
Видите голубые веточки? Это нервы. Они проходят от спинного мозга через отверстие, указанное зеленой стрелочкой(похожей на цветочек, приведеньице,или гуманоидика без ножек), и идут в руки. Отверстие меняет размер в зависимости от сил, действующих на шею. Если на голову надавить, отверстие становится уже.
Давайте представим, что происходит во время отжиманий в стойке на руках. Втыкая голову в мат или отдыхая на ней, мы несколько рискуем повредить нервы, отверстие сужается, и -Алаверды! От нескольких повторений не убудет, а вот длительное давление… и сознание к Вам вернется уже в больнице с бесплатным обслуживанием, что — совсем нехорошо.
А итогом этих упражнений являются грыжи межпозвоночных дисков и поврежденные нервы шейного отдела.
Вывод прост: Киппинг нам не Бро. С грыжами ни в соревнованиях победить, ни ведра воды принести, ни быть здоровым и сильным не удастся. А все это противоречит нашим целям. Короче, не дружим мы с Киппингом, шея дороже.

Тренировка и соревнования 

Есть большая разница между тренировкой и соревнованиями. На тренировках вы работаете над своими слабыми сторонами и стараетесь стать сильнее. Если вы не можете сделать достаточное количество отжиманий в стойке на руках строго, то разве делая их киппингом вы лучше тренируетесь? Достигаете поставленных целей?
Чемпионы и призеры региональных соревнований свои подходы делают не киппингом, а строго. Почти все.
Логичнее будет укрепить верхнюю часть туловища альтернативными упражнениями, стать лучше и сильнее и избежать травм шеи и делать превосходные отжимания в стойке на руках строго. А то киппинг на тренировках, он же на соревнованиях, кто быстрее, а потом без шеи человек, не комильфо как-то. Тренерам тоже надо взять на заметку, без крайней необходимости киппинг не использовать, если только совсем уж край и соревнования, и двушка в Саранске на кону.

Альтернатива отжиманий в стойке на руках 

Если вы можете делать их строго- делайте строго
Если вы не можете делать их строго, то:
  1. Жим гири одной рукой (двумя) (тремя, если есть такая опция)
  2. Жим гири одной рукой (двумя) на одном колене
  3. Жим гири одной рукой (двумя) на двух коленях ( если есть такая опция)
  4. Отжимания в наклоне, ноги выше головы

Финальные мысли по этому поводу 

Давайте спасем наши шеи, наши и наших товарищей. Шеи нужны,у них много прекрасных предназначений. Человек с травмированной шеей -грустный.
Поэтому давайте тренироваться во время тренировок, а не балансировать на грани травм используя упражнения, которые могут нам навредить. Давайте делать их на соревнованиях. А тренировки должны делать нас Сильнее и Лучше.
Автор: Dr. Patrick Ryan

вторник, 23 августа 2016 г.

S H O U L D E R P A I N

 
Shoulder Girdle and Rotator Cuff pain is extremely common and myofascial dysfunction is a common cause. Over 20 muscles refer pain to the shoulder and may also be the source of mysterious pain, tingling and/or weakness in arm, hand, or fingers. In the following illustrations, black dots indicate common trigger point locations; red areas indicate the pain referred by the trigger point. You can evaluate these muscles with the Rotator Cuff Tests excerpted and adapted from our Range-of-Motion Testing Charts. (See also cervical and head pain patterns and testing.) Middle and Lower Trap Pain
  1. Trapezius (Tension headache and "bursitis"). The trapezius muscle of the back and neck is the single muscle most likely to have trigger points in both adults and children. Trapezius is a common victim of poor posture, short pectoral muscles, badly designed furniture, tote bags and cell phones. The upper fibers are a common cause of headache but the middle and lower fibers are often ignored by therapists. TrPs in the middle and lower trapezius apparently are responsible for the circles of pain commonly felt at the base of the skull. They also cause diffuse upper back pain, burning pain on the vertebral edge of the scapula, and pain at the point of the shoulder (commonly interpreted as "bursitis").
    A TrP (designated as TrP 3 by Travell & Simons) is often found at the point where trapezius crosses the lower edge of the scapula. This point appears to produce the more familiar upper trapezius TrPs as satellites. In turn, the lower trapezius point itself appears to be a satellite TrP of latissimus dorsi.
  2. Latissimus Dorsi. This powerful back muscle refers pain to the lower shoulder blade and to the front of the shoulder where it attaches. There may also be pain running along the medial side of the arm down to the ring and little fingers and / or pain in the side waist area. "Imaginary Lat Syndrome" (arms held out to the sides as if unable to fall naturally) is common in new weight lifters. Unfortunately, doing this strains the traps and shoulder girdle muscles. If not imaginary, and accompanied by the pain patterns shown here, lats may be chronically shortened and in need of stretching. Lat pain referred to the lower edge of the scapula is believed to create trapezius TrP3 which in turn creates other TrPs in the upper fibers. See Trapezius above. 
  3. Scalenes ("thoracic outlet" and "carpal tunnel" syndromes; chest, arm, and upper back pain). Scalene-PainYou may think you're having a heart attack. Get it checked!
    If no cardiac problems are found, consider other muscles, especially if you have tingly thumb or index fingers. Scalenes contribute to severe tension headache. They are one of the leading causes of "carpal tunnel syndrome." On the list of a half-dozen possible causes, the carpal tunnel itself is dead last. Check before you cut! In Aikido, new students tend to interpret kokyu-nagetechniques (actually based on timing and balance) as: "Swing your partner around by the neck then drop him on his head" -- an interesting variation on the game of “Hangman.” In the NFL, doing the same thing to a large, padded, extremely fit refrigerator-sized man by grabbing his face-guard is an instant 15-yard penalty.
    The consequences of “neck-a-nage” can be extremely painful; the electrical supply for arm and fingers comes from the brachial plexus, the “wiring harness” originating in the neck. Pain may extend into chest, shoulder, the area between the shoulder blades and down the arm to the index finger and thumb. Where care and consideration have failed, know this pain pattern and what to do for it. A similar pattern arises from omohyoid, especially following flu and any condition that involves bouts of vomiting.


    The Rotator Cuff Muscles

  4. Supraspinatus (Rotator Cuff). Pain "above the spine of Supraspinatusthe scapula," strongest on outside of shoulder. It extends down the arm to the elbow and possibly along the lateral (thumb side) of the forearm. Commonly strained in association with infraspinatus.

















  5. Infraspinatus (Rotator Cuff). This muscle of Infraspinatus Painthe back is a very common source of pain on the lateral and front side of the shoulder. Pain is felt deep in the shoulder joint, primarily at the front of the shoulder. Pain may extend down lateral (thumb side) and anterior ("fishbelly") side of the arm as far as the front and back of the hand. Commonly injured in sudden abrupt arm movements such as catching oneself when falling backwards or excessive poling while skiing.
    Problems reaching your hip pocket? Chances are that the problem is infraspinatus, possibly with a tight anterior deltoid. Infraspinatus is the major muscle of (and "below the spine of") the scapula.







  6. Subscapularis (Rotator Cuff). This unfamiliar muscle is a critical member of the Subscapularis Painrotator cuff and a major player in the garbage-can diagnosis known as "frozen shoulder."
    Subscapularis lines the entire underside of the scapula, between scapula and rib cage, visible only in part via the arm pit. Pain extends over the scapular area, into the posterior shoulder (and possibly to the top of shoulder). It may be impossible or painful to raise the arm to comb hair. There may be pain down the underside (medial side) of arm perhaps with an odd bracelet of pain around the wrist and swelling on the back of the hand. See more here.











  7. Teres Minor (Rotator Cuff). Refers "silver dollar pain" Teres Minor Painto the back of the arm, apparently deep in the posterior deltoid. It may refer pain up to the shoulder and numbness and tingling down to the fourth and fifth (ring and pinky) fingers. Teres minor rotates the arm laterally and is the smallest and most "minor" of the rotator cuff muscles working in concert with the infraspinatus.
    Pain from this muscle is sharply localized, deep and, notes Travell and Simons, "about the size of a prune." The extremely localized nature of teres minor pain is one of its best diagnostic features. However, the teres muscles are two of the the least likely muscles to have pain and trigger points in healthy persons.
    Check teres if pain and restriction remain after releasing the other rotator cuff muscles -- especially if the sufferer plays volleyball or tennis. The muscle is especially subject to strain when arms are extended high over and behind the head as in serving a tennis ball or performing or blocking a spike in volleyball.
    Like so many other back and shoulder muscles, teres minor is strained by tight pectoralis (chest) muscles. See Pectoralis Major and Minor below.


  8. Teres Major. Pain to the shoulder over the region of the posterior deltoid. 
  9. Deltoids. One of the few muscles that actually hurts at the source!. Pain may radiate down the arm as far as the elbow, but the pain pattern is uncommonly local. Anterior deltoid hurts in the front of the shoulder (with some spillover pain to side and back). It restricts reach to the back.
    Posterior deltoid hurts in the back of the shoulder (with some spillover pain to side and front). It restricts reach across the front of the body. Deltoids may develop satellite TrPs due to pain referral from other muscles as seen above. The flip side of saying deltoid pain is "local" is, once again, that pain in the deltoids may be coming from somewhere other than the deltoids. 
  10. Pectoralis Major Pectoralis major is the Pectoralis Major Pain“major muscle of the chest.” The shoulder, arm, and chest pain of this muscle suggest serious disease. In women, breast pain is feared to be due to breast cancer and patients may be sent for repeated mammograms (ironically, exposing them to additional radiation). Tight pectorals can also cause shoulder and chest pain extending down the arm to below the elbow. In both men and women, this pattern (especially when on the left side) can be terrifyingly similar to the pain of angina and heart attack. Pectoralis major is strained or shortened by: Hunching shoulders forward, sitting or sleeping with arms crossed on chest, typing / keyboarding, sword work.
    Conversely, pectoralis major can develop painful TrPs following a heart attack. Pain reflexes can shrink blood vessels, further starving the heart of blood. There is even a pectoralis TrP that causes irregular heartbeat.
  11. Pectoralis Minor A leading cause of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome due to entrapment of the brachial plexus and blood supply to the arm. Pain over the chest, anterior shoulder, extending down the arm medial side (pinky side) of arm as far as the last three (pinky, ring, and middle) fingers. 
  12. Serratus Posterior Superior. Another unfamiliar muscle which causes enormous amounts of pain. Pain concentrates over the upper half of the scapula spilling over into the middle back between scapula and spine. It extends to the posterior side of arm and shoulder, down the back of the arm to the elbow and from there to the back of the hand and lateral palm to the little finger. There may also be pain in the chest and anterior arm. 
  13. Coracobrachialis The TrP is in the shoulder at the coracoid process of the scapula (for which it is named). You'll get some severe pain there, but the pain also hops, skips, and jumps down the posterior arm (missing the elbow) as far as the back of the hand and the middle finger. 
  14. Biceps Brachii You would think that this powerful muscle would produce a similarly powerful pain pattern but it is, in fact, fairly localized. TrPs in the muscle belly extend pain down to attachments at elbow and shoulder. 
  15. Brachialis. Known as "the workhorse of the elbow," this muscle produces a weaker version of the Biceps pain pattern with an interesting twist. The main pain is felt in the fleshy portion of the base of the thumb. 
  16. Triceps Brachii A major player in tennis elbow, but a source of shoulder pain as well. Pain in posterior shoulder extending as far up as the angle of the neck, down the back and front of the arm and forearm. One of the three heads also entraps the radial nerve causing slowed nerve conduction, numbness and tingling in the two medial (pinky and ring) fingers. 
  17. Levator scapula (Wry neck). This muscle is the number one cause of "stiff" or "wry" neck and the second most common shoulder girdle muscle (trapezius is Number One) to have trigger points. Working with trapezius, levator shrugs the shoulders and helps prevent forward flexion of the neck, hence it is also damaged in whiplash injuries. It is commonly strained when shoulder (or shoulders) are chronically hunched, either in stress, or by attempting to keep a strap from sliding off the shoulder, especially when muscle is cold or fatigued. 
  18. Omohyoid (Head, neck, shoulder, and back pain). This peculiar muscle, which doesn't even show up in a lot of anatomy books can cause disabling pain and dysfunction. It's another one of the muscles that attaches to the hyoid bone but the other end attaches to the scapula. Aside from the pain (which often appears after a bout of coughing or vomiting) there may also be weakness and tingling down arm and fingers (similar to the scalene pattern) and symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome. 
  19. Rhomboids Not exactly shoulder pain, but certainly related. Rhomboid pain is fairly localized, appearing between the shoulder blades, the place where everyone loves a backrub. Pain may extend out across the top of the scapula towards (but not up to) the neck. Again, local pain, but commonly fired off as satellites of pain patterns from other muscles, especially the scalene muscles of the neck, serratus posterior superior, and levator scapula. 
  20. Subclavius This odd little muscle depresses and stabilizes the clavicle (collarbone). It also refers pain locally to the front of the clavicle and anterior shoulder, down the anterior arm along the biceps and the lateral (thumb) side of the arm as far as the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Another referral patten that may be mistaken for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

понедельник, 22 августа 2016 г.

6 Unstable Overhead Lifts for Quick Gains

 

Earthquake Training

Earthquake-training

Get Shaky, Get Better at Everything

These exercise variations will tax you, frustrate you, and cause you great discomfort. But most of all, they'll make you a far better lifter. Why? They all involve the use of unstable or "oscillating" objects.
Lifting unstable, shaky things works to improve your motor control and stability. It also improves your intermuscular (within a muscle) and intramuscular (between different muscle groups) coordination and overall muscle function. In short, this method of training will make you better at just about anything.

Double Javelin Press

The javelin press is an exceptional overhead pressing variation that requires a combination of strength, stability, coordination, and skill. However, with enough practice, many lifters can learn to cheat the system by becoming neuromuscularly efficient at lousy form, as they learn to stabilize the load with faulty mechanics.
For this reason, you should use the double-arm javelin press as it exposes the undesirable neuromuscular adaption. It's one thing to control a single, unstable object as every bit of neural drive can be channeled to that individual side. However, locking in two barbells overhead requires precise execution and textbook mechanics. There's no cheating the system on this one.

Bottoms-Up Press: Eccentric Isometric, Eyes-Closed

Bottoms-up movements are some of the best exercises for improving motor control, joint stability, reciprocal co-contraction, and overall movement mechanics. You're forced to center the glenohumeral joint into the optimal position in order to control the unstable load. Bottoms-up movements also teach you how to produce perfectly vertical force vectors against a heavy load. Any lateral or horizontal deviations result in an immediate failed attempt.
If you've ever performed these, you know how difficult they can be. Combining them with eccentric isometrics under eyes-closed conditions, though, makes them one of the most challenging, yet effective training techniques you can do for enhancing body kinematics, motor control, proprioception, and muscle function.
Note: Eccentric isometrics involve performing the negative phase of a lift in a controlled manner and holding the stretched position for a given duration. See video for a demo.

Double Offset Overhead Press

This one sounds complicated but it's simple in practice. There are two forms of offset loading involved – one is the actual load being heavier on one side, and the second is the use of a different training apparatus in each hand.
While one arm is performing a relatively standard overload movement in the form of a heavy dumbbell press, the other arm is performing a lighter, yet highly unstable pressing variation in the form of a bottoms-up press. The goal is to transfer the same crisp and proper mechanics produced from the bottoms-up technique to the arm that's simultaneously pressing the heavier dumbbell on the opposite side.
Once mastered, the movement should appear seamless and synchronized as if you were using the same tools and loads on each side with no visible differences in body position and mechanics. This requires a high degree of neuromuscular coordination, body awareness, sensory integrated movement, and mental focus.

Hanging Band Press

The hanging band technique (HBT) is a great variation for reinforcing proper technique, motor control, stability, symmetrical loading, and coordination.
The instability of the barbell does wonders for waking up proprioceptive mechanisms, as muscle spindles and other sensory receptors must work overtime to continually adjust to the erratic movements. It's particularly challenging on the overhead press due to the heightened center of mass and lack of support. Every muscle in your body must work overtime to lock the movement in.
This technique can be applied to standard Olympic barbells or specialty bars such as bamboo bars, which are designed specifically to magnify the oscillations.

Draping Chain Overhead Press

The draping chain technique is similar to HBT training. The main difference is there's a greater emphasis on sway and barbell tilt rather than quick and rapid oscillations. If you tend to favor one side, lack symmetry, or use any compensation pattern, there will be significant tilt in the barbell as the chains begin to sway almost uncontrollably.

Isolateral Hanging Band Overhead Press

The hanging band technique can be applied isolaterally by simply looping the weight and bands through standard cable grips/handles. The resulting instability is enough to force any lifter to slow the movement down and focus on movement mechanics.

 

воскресенье, 21 августа 2016 г.

Ромбовидная мышца – возможная причина боли в области лопаток

ромбовидная мышца
Ромбовидная мышца как причина боли в верхней части спины
Ромбовидная мышца расположена в верхней части спины. Она состоит из двух частей – большой и малой ромбовидной мышцы – и выступает соединяющей структурой между лопаткой и позвонками верхней части спины. Вместе с трапециевидной мышцей и мышцей, поднимающей лопатку, она соединяет лопатки, удерживает их и сводит назад. Отходит малая ромбовидная мышца от остистого отростка 7-го шейного позвонка, большая – от 4 верхних остистых отростков грудного отдела позвоночника, и обе они соединены с углами лопаток. Какие проблемы могут возникнуть с данной мышцей и как их решить?

Ромбовидная мышца – возможные проблемы и их причины

Основными функциями ромбовидных мышц являются:
  • стабилизация лопаток и удержание их на грудной клетке;
  • движение лопаток внутрь, к позвоночнику;
  • подъем внутреннего края лопатки.
Перенапряжение ромбовидной мышцы или ее спазм может привести не только к болевым ощущениям в верхней части спины, но и к ограничению подвижности плеч и шеи. Чаще всего причиной такого перенапряжения является сильная нагрузка на руки и плечи, например:
  • подъем рук над головой (во время подачи в теннисе или установки тяжестей на высокие полки);
  • ношение тяжелого рюкзака (в том числе на одном плече);
  • гребля;
  • неправильная осанка во время работы за компьютером;
  • неправильная техника подъема тяжестей.
В случае ослабления ромбовидной мышцы наблюдается смещение лопаток и, как следствие, сутулость. Дело в том, что ослабление указанной мышцы влечет за собой целый ряд мышечных изменений, который называют верхним перекрестным синдромом.

Как устранить перенапряжения и спазмы ромбовидной мышцы?

В случае появления хронической боли в спине лучше всего первым делом обратиться к специалисту, особенно если возникновению болевых ощущений предшествовала травма спины, шеи или плеча.
Основными симптомами перенапряжения ромбовидной мышцы являются:
  • боль между лопатками, которая усиливается при движении рук;
  • боль и чувствительность в верхней части спины.
Если боль слишком сильная, врач назначит определенные обезболивающие препараты. Также для снятия симптомов перенапряжения ромбовидной мышцы можно делать массажи. Самостоятельно это сделать довольно трудно, однако можно использовать метод с теннисным мячиком:
  • лягте на пол;
  • под голову для удобства можно положить небольшую подушечку;
  • поместите теннисный мячик между лопаткой и позвоночником;
  • когда мяч коснется точки напряжения, Вы это почувствуете;
  • полежите на мячике, максимально расслабив тело;
  • качайте мячик по области напряженной мышцы.
Растяжка и упражнения
  1. Растяжка ромбовидной мышцы:
 
  • сядьте на стул;
  • опустите голову;
  • наклонитесь вперед;
  • скрестив руки, возьмитесь ими за противоположные колени;
  • задержитесь в положении на 20 секунд.
  1. Растяжка верхней части спины
 
  • станьте прямо;
  • вытяните руки перед собой;
  • подайтесь чуть вперед;
  • наклоните голову;
  • почувствуйте, как растягиваются мышцы спины и шеи;
  • через 30 секунд вернитесь в ИП.
  1. Поза кобры
 
  • лягте на живот;
  • ноги прямые, на ширине плеч;
  • руки вдоль туловища;
  • ладони опущены вниз;
  • медленно поднимайте верхнюю и нижнюю части туловища;
  • руки поднимайте вместе с телом;
  • задержитесь на несколько секунд;
  • опуститесь;
  • повторите 10 раз;
  • принимая позу кобры, не прогибайте шею и сжимайте ягодицы.
Надеемся, что с помощью несложных упражнений, подобранных estet-portal.com, Вам удастся снять боль, возникшую в результате перенапряжения ромбовидной мышцы.