суббота, 30 апреля 2016 г.



Trigger Points in the Rhomboids are mostly associated with chronic poor posture.
Generally referred to as the rhomboids, these are actually two muscles (major and minor). The rhomboid minor is smaller than the major and sits immediately above the rhomboid major. Both of the rhomboid muscles originate along the thoracic spine with their fibers running diagonally downward and outward to attach along the inside border of the scapula.
Active trigger points in the rhomboids tend to refer pain to the local area, so will usually present as pain described by the client as mid-upper-back pain, or pain at the back of the shoulder.
Whilst trigger points in the rhomboids are pretty easy to identify and treat, we need to be aware that there is usually more work to be done! In many cases, trigger points in other muscles such the pecs, or serratus anterior may be causing those muscles to become less efficient, with a resulting effect on the rhomboids. This is a particularly common scenario with badminton and tennis players. A detailed examination of the clients posture is extremely important when treating the rhomboids, as well as an understanding of the clients lifestyle including their work, exercise, sleep patterns, and general health).
Trigger Points and the Rhomboids
The rhomboid muscles inevitably develop trigger points, usually as a result of aging, and almost always as a result of postural issues.
The rhomboids are busy muscles, as they work almost constantly to retract the scapula, stabilize the scapula, and also assist in the outer range of adduction of the arm (ex. movement of arm overhead, to arm at shoulder level).
Trigger points may develop as a result of years of chronic poor posture (rounded shoulders), but also as a result of inefficiencies in other related muscles (including trigger points in the pecs, serratus anterior), and injuries from activities such as tennis, or any sport that involves overhead throwing.
Trigger Point Therapy
As described above, trigger points in the rhomboids are relatively easy to locate and treat, but the treatment may be more complex and require more time where the trigger points are caused by other issues that need to be addressed.
Ask your therapist about trigger points!
The stretch below is pretty effective for helping to relieve pain in the rhomboid muscles, and may help to dissipate trigger points, especially between hands-on treatments.

Stand with your knees bent. Cross your arms over and grab the back of your knees. Then start to rise upwards until you feel tension in your upper back and shoulders.
Primary muscles: Trapezius. Rhomboids. Latissimusdorsi.
Secondary muscle: Teres minor.
Archery. Cricket. Baseball. Softball. Boxing. Golf. Tennis. Badminton. Squash. Rowing. Canoeing. Kayaking. Swimming. Athletics throwing field events.
Dislocation. Subluxation. Acromioclavicular separation. Sternoclavicular separation. Impingement syndrome. Rotator cuff tendonitis. Shoulder bursitis. Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis).
Keep your shoulders level to the ground and avoid twisting or turning to one side. Always start slowly and stop if you experience pain. Always use your common sense!


Written by Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., FACSM

The Path to Massive Traps

The One Neglected Exercise You Need

Get Trapped
Even if you are not where you want to be yet, by pounding iron in the gym, your sweat and effort will eventually pay off with a thick chest, arms that will give your shirt stretch marks, and carved mass across your middle back. When it comes to the back, usually it is the latissimus muscle that garners most of the training attention from bodybuilders. As a result, the trapezius muscle often receives indirect work from other back exercises, but little direct work. To avoid imbalance in your back symmetry, this muscle needs some direct work.
You can tell the guys who have clocked many hours at the gym pounding their trapezius. A few are genetic freaks who have trapezius mounds that seem to rise from the top of their shoulders to almost touch their ears. These guys seem to have taken a cue from the Hulk, the comic book green mammoth who was illustrated with huge, monstrous traps that overshadowed his clavicle and buried his neck. 
Perhaps you don’t want quite the extreme size of that green fellow, but if you choose to target this area, your trapezius can thicken toward Hulk-like portions— and this will make you a standout far beyond the average bodybuilder. Barbell shrugs behind the back provide an alternative to dumbbell and machine shrugs, and allow you to home in on your upper and middle trapezius muscle fibers.
Anatomical Activation by Shrugs
The trapezius has several parts, but it is primarily the superior (upper) fibers of this muscle that are activated by barbell shrugs behind the back. The superior trapezius begins along the base of the skull and the seventh cervical (neck) vertebrae. The fibers angle downward to attach on the lateral part of the clavicle (collarbone) and along the scapula (shoulder blade). The superior fibers lift the scapula and shoulder structures toward the ears (shrugging), and this is the portion of the muscle that is targeted by barbell shrugs.
The middle one-third of the trapezius muscle stretches from the upper thoracic spine, laterally to the posterior side of the scapula and clavicle. These fibers “squeeze” the two scapula bones toward the midline of the body (adduction of scapula). While the middle trapezius is affected very little if the barbell is in front of your body, placing it behind your back forces these fibers to pull the scapula together. The most inferior (lowest) parts of the trapezius muscle extend from an inferior medial position at the lower thoracic vertebrae, and attach to the scapula from below. The function of the inferior fibers of the trapezius is to forcefully depress (lower) the scapula. 
Guide To Barbell Shrugs Behind the Back
Step 1. Place a barbell behind your thighs. Your hands and your feet should be spaced about shoulder-width apart. Take an overhand grip (palms facing the floor) on the bar, and stand with your knees slightly bent. You can also take the bar off of a power rack.
Step 2. Allow your elbows to straighten almost completely. You may want to consider using wrist straps to prevent grip failure during the heaviest sets, but they are not needed for the lighter warm-up sets.
Step 3. Raise your shoulders and both scapulae simultaneously, as high as possible. Your shoulders will come up and back during the lift. Try to squeeze the scapulae together as you are coming up. Although it will be nearly impossible, attempt to touch your ears with the superior part of your trapezius. Bend your neck just a little forward as the weights come up.
Step 4. Hold the top position for two seconds. 
Step 5. Continue to squeeze the scapulae together as the weight is lowered about two-thirds of the way down to the starting position, and then let the scapulae slide forward as the shoulders are moved downward. Do not let the weight drop haphazardly, but control the weight on the way down.
Step 6. You are not quite done with the first repetition. At the bottom, let the barbell pull the scapulae and clavicles downward toward the floor even further, so that you are able to feel a good stretch across the superior trapezius muscle. This stretch between reps will fight off any cramping in your scapular muscles.
Step 7. After a two- or three-second stretch, repeat the movement and start the barbell moving upward as before.
Step 8. Exhale as the weight is lifted upward, and inhale as the weight comes down.
Any version of the shrug will activate the superior trapezius as you lift the shoulders upward. However, with the barbell behind your back, you are forced to squeeze the shoulders together (scapular adduction) as you lift upward, and this strongly recruits the medial fibers of the trapezius muscle. The inferior fibers of the trapezius muscle are not activated very strongly in this movement; however, they do see some work as they eccentrically (during the lengthening portion) resist lowering the bar in each rep. Try to get as much of a range of motion as possible in each rep.
Merely thinking about acquiring trapezius mass will not get the job done. However, the trapezius muscle is one that responds very well to regular hard and persistent work. Barbell shrugs behind your back will transform a thin and narrow trapezius and shoulder frame to a new thickness and power with Hulk-like proportions. Look at a most-muscular pose of Mr. Olympia, Phil Heath, and ask yourself if traps are important to a bodybuilder. The thick traps that explode above his clavicles quickly tell you that he has not neglected training the trapezius, and this makes his back look great from any angle.
Maybe you are not ready to challenge Phil on the Mr. Olympia stage yet. Nevertheless, if you are serious about adding some hulking mass to your trapezius, barbell shrugs behind your back will get the job done— and will add towering trapezius mass that cannot be easily camouflaged in clothes.

пятница, 29 апреля 2016 г.


Written by Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., FACSM

The Path to Strong & Muscular Quads

Machine Front Squats are the Way

Machine front squats are exceedingly brutal, but the pain is worth effort. Do them properly and consistently and your quads will grow. 
Muscles Activated
Machine front squats hit the four quadriceps femoris (“quads”) muscles of the anterior (front) thigh.1 The fibers of the rectus femoris muscle runs from hip, along the front of the thigh to join the quadriceps tendon above the kneecap (patella). The rectus femoris extends the leg at the knee joint.2 The vastus medialis muscle covers the medial (inner) part of the thigh. This creates the “teardrop” area that is medial and superior to the patella (kneecap). The vastus intermedius muscle is positioned between the vastus lateralis and the vastus medialis muscle but it is deep to the rectus femoris muscle.2 The vastus lateralis muscle is positioned on the lateral (outer) part of the thigh. The three vastus muscles begin on the femur bone of the thigh, and attach to the upper border of the patella by the quadriceps tendon. The patella is attached to the tibia bone of the lower leg by the patellar ligament. As the muscles of the quadriceps shorten, they pull on the tibia bone to extend the leg (i.e., knee straightens) at the knee joint.2The three vastus muscles are not affected by hip angle, so they are active throughout the front squat.1
 Machine Front Squats Protocol
 1. Spend five minutes warming your knees before starting front squats. 
 2. Load the machine with the appropriate load. 
 3. Bend your knees slightly and position your shoulders under the pads. Your feet should be about shoulder-width apart. Bring your feet forward so that they are in front of your shoulders. This will guarantee that your torso is perpendicular to the floor during the squat.
 4. Straighten your knees to lift the weight from the supports. Take a deep breath and slowly squat downward, taking about three to four seconds to reach the bottom position. Continue squatting until your knee angle is at 90 degrees of flexion. 
 5. After reaching the bottom, stand up but do not explode out of a position with an extremely bent knee since this can cause a serious injury. Starting slowly upward will help protect your knees in a vulnerable position. Accelerate the weight upward only after you are partway up.3
 6. Don’t lock out your knees at the top position because the stress will be removed from your quadriceps and the bones of the hips and thigh will transmit the force downward without the need for muscle activation.
 7. The next repetition is the same as the first, so that the body is lowered slowly into the squat position, but it is raised with a healthy thrust upwards.
 8. Place the weight stack back on the supports at the end of your set. 
 If your feet are placed too close together when squatting (i.e., six inches apart) this will produce a dangerously acute knee angle at the lowest part of the squat, which only invites a knee injury.3 This is worsened if you drop too rapidly to the bottom part of the squat.4 The idea is to maximally work your thigh muscles, but to have mercy on your knee joints.
 Machine front squats are great for hammering your thighs1, especially if you have had back injuryand you cannot do heavy barbell squats. The machine provides stability and isolates the anterior thighs with minimal activation of the gluteus muscle groups as compared to barbell back squats.6 A few sets of this exercise and your anterior thighs and especially your vastus lateralis muscles will be screaming, yet after a few weeks, you will be piling the weight on the machine and asking for more.
While the machine version of front squats was not around when the first chapters of Joe Weider's impact on bodybuilder history books was written, the barbell version was. Machine front squats will help you etch grooves and deep valleys across your thighs. In honor of his Joe's contributions to bodybuilding, it is only fitting this week to grind out another two reps in the machine front squat as a memorial to the melting of the old-school bodybuilding history with the modern era of bodybuilding, which Joe helped to usher in.

четверг, 28 апреля 2016 г.

Самомассаж грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцы избавит от множества болезней

грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца
Грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца: симптомы, самомассаж
Многие люди не догадываются о том, что грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца (ГКСМ) может вызывать боль. Сама по себе ГКСМ, расположенная в передней боковой части шеи, редко тревожит пациента. Однако именно она может отвечать за появление таких неприятных ощущений как: головные боли, боли и напряжение в области челюстей, головокружения, спутанность сознания, затуманенность зрения и даже ухудшение слуха. Массаж грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцы, о котором расскажет estet-portal.com, поможет избавиться от таких неприятных симптомов.

Где расположена грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца?

Эта состоящая из двух частей мышца берет начало у основания черепа, за ухом. Грудинная часть мышцы крепится к грудной кости, а ключичная – к ключице. Поскольку грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца находится непосредственно под кожей, ее можно увидеть невооруженным глазом, просто повернув голову в любую сторону до упора. ГКСМ можно не только увидеть, но и с легкостью прощупать. Как уже говорилось выше, она располагается сборку шеи, ближе к передней ее части. Причиной каких проблем может стать грудин-ключично-сосцевидная мышца?

Симптомы, вызываемые грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцей

Грудинная составляющая мышцы может отвечать за: 
  • болевые ощущения в щеке и невралгию тройничного нерва, расположенного на лице;
  • боль в верхней части грудной кости;
  • боль в глазах и над глазами;
  • покраснение глаза;
  • слезоотделение;
  • опущение века в результате спазма круговой мышцы глаза;
  • подергивание века;
  • затуманенность зрения;
  • двоение в глазах;
  • боль в горле и языке, в особенности при глотании;
  • ухудшение слуха;
  • боли в затылке и на макушке.
Ключичная часть ГКСМ может стать причиной: 
  • боли в области лба;
  • боли в ухе и за ухом;
  • боли в щеке и молярах;
  • головокружений;
  • боли в ухе;
  • зуд глубоко в наружном слуховом проходе;
  • тошноты (без рвоты);
  • в редких случаях растяжение мышцы может привести к обмороку.
Помимо вышеуказанных симптомов, грудино-ключично-сосцевидная мышца может также имитировать синусные боли, приводить к появлению насморка и прочим симптомам синусита.

Почему возникают проблемы с грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцей?

Расположение ГКСМ «благоприятно» для возникновения всякого рода перенапряжений, растяжений и прочих нагрузок на эту мышцу, в результате чего могут проявляться вышеописанные симптомы. Так, достаточно посидеть целый день, неправильно склонив голову над телефоном или чуть повернув ее в одну сторону, – и боли Вам обеспечены. Проблемы с ГКСМ могут быть вызваны следующим:
  • неправильная осанка (голова постоянно наклонена вперед);
  • длительное пребывание в одном положении;
  • удержание телефона плечом;
  • сон на животе;
  • подъем тяжестей;
  • падения и травмы;
  • тугой воротник;
  • сколиоз и прочие серьезные нарушения осанки;
  • хронический кашель или астма.

Массаж триггерных точек грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцы

Важно! Не массируйте проходящие возле грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцы сосуды! Этого можно избежать, если зажать саму мышцу, а не прижать ее к шее.
Для массажа триггерных точек грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышц необходимо сделать следующее:
  1. Смотря в зеркало, поверните голову в сторону – Вы увидите грудинную часть ГКСМ.
  2. Захватите мышцу между большим пальцем и остальными пальцами, изогнутыми в форме буквы С и посмотрите прямо перед собой.
  3. Смотря вперед, слегка наклоните голову вперед и в сторону мышцы, которую массируете.
  4. Постарайтесь прощупать обе составляющие мышцы – их толщина примерно соответствует толщине указательного пальца.
  5. Помассируйте мышцу, начиная со средины, двигаясь вверх по направлению к уху, а затем спуститесь вниз до ключицы.
  6. Если Вы наткнетесь на точку, которая вызывает болевые ощущения, слегка ущипните ее, затем уменьшайте давление, пока болевые ощущения не пройдут. После этого медленно увеличивайте давление на протяжении 60–90 секунд.
Такой массаж грудино-ключично-сосцевидной мышцы рекомендуется проводить несколько раз в день (3–6), постепенно увеличивая давление. Прислушивайтесь к своим ощущениям, старайтесь не давить слишком сильно, если Вы чувствуете боль в массируемых точках.

среда, 27 апреля 2016 г.

Shoulder Exercises for Arthritis

Any type of arthritis in the shoulder can cause severe shoulder pain and limit mobility, making physical activity challenging. However, not exercising the shoulder can result in muscle atrophy, joint instability, further joint degeneration, and possibly a frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis).
Under the guidance of a health professional, many people with shoulder arthritis can benefit from a comprehensive program of shoulder exercises that includes:
  • Shoulder stretches to encourage flexibility in the shoulder joint and surrounding muscles;
  • Shoulder strengthening exercises designed to build muscle around the shoulder, including the scapular stabilizing muscles, and
  • Low impact aerobic workouts, which promote a healthy blood flow throughout the body, including the shoulder joints.

This article provides specific sets of exercises for shoulder stretches, strengthening, and low impact aerobic activities for those with arthritic shoulders.

Benefits of Shoulder Exercises

Stretching and strengthening exercising together with aerobic workouts can provide multiple benefits, including:
    Reduces pain. Exercise strengthens muscles, and stronger muscles provide better support to joints. One danger of shoulder arthritis is that the individual avoids activities that cause pain or discomfort, causing shoulder muscles to atrophy. By strengthening the muscles surrounding the shoulder, including the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizing muscles, the shoulder’s glenohumeral joint becomes more stable. This stability can help prevent bone dislocation as well as protect bones from impact and friction, thereby reducing pain. Exercise also releases endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers.
    Increases range of motion and function. Shoulder pain can discourage a person from being active, thus compounding the problem of joint pain with stiffness, which leads to increased pain. Regular exercise will help keep the shoulder joint and surrounding muscles limber, thereby increasing shoulder function.
    Supports healthy cartilage. Joint cartilage needs motion and a certain amount of stress to stay healthy. Synovial fluid is stored in cartilage like water in a sponge. When the joint is used, the synovial fluid excretes from the cartilage and delivers nutrients and lubrication to the joint. Synovial fluid is also thought to encourage a healing environment for the joint, thereby reducing inflammation and supporting healthy joint function.
    Helps with weight loss. Exercise combined with a nutritious, low fat diet can help shed pounds. While weight loss is not as crucial for people with shoulder arthritis as it is for people with arthritis in weight-bearing joints (e.g. knee), weight loss can improve overall health and mobility, making shoulder arthritis easier to bear.
    Helps maintain function. Chronic shoulder pain can prevent a person from doing day-to-day tasks or participating in sports and recreational activities. The limitations in everyday activities can be frustrating and sometimes depressing. Exercise - along with perhaps physical modifications - can help those with shoulder arthritis return to many of the activities they love, and engage in everyday routines.

Preparing for Shoulder Exercises

An individual should always work with a health care provider to design an exercise plan that meets his or her specific needs and physical challenges. A well-tailored warm-up and post-workout routine will help maximize the benefits of stretching, strengthening and exercise while minimizing the possibility for pain or injury.
    Warm up: Any exercise routine should typically be preceded by a 10-minute warm-up activity, which increases blood flow and literally warms up the body, making muscles more flexible. A walk or other slow-paced aerobic activity will help warm the body up. For those with more severe arthritis, gentle range-of-motion activities and a warm compress might also be sufficient.
    Post workout: After a workout, some people may need to ice the shoulders (a bag of frozen peas will do) and/or take an over-the counter NSAID medication (e.g. Advil, Aleve) to reduce swelling and relieve discomfort.
If any pain is felt during shoulder exercises, stop and seek advice from a healthcare professional or an appropriately qualified athletic trainer before continuing.

Gentle shoulder stretches are a core part of most shoulder arthritis treatment programs.
The stretches described below can be done once or twice a day. To avoid straining joints is important to maintain the right form and use modifications when necessary. Stretches to maintain the shoulder’s range of movement are important, but stretches to increase range of motion should be undertaken with caution, as they can result in injury.1

Overhead Shoulder Stretch

  • Stand with legs shoulder-width apart.
  • Let arms hang down at each side.
  • Interlock fingers with palms facing down.
  • Keeping fingers interlocked, raise arms up and stretch them over the head with the palms facing toward the ceiling.
Hold the stretch for 20 seconds.
    Modification: Those who are unable to interlock fingers and do this stretch may hold a long pole (such as a broomstick) in both hands and raise the pole overhead, keeping the pole parallel to the floor.

Crossover Shoulder Stretch

  • Stand with legs shoulder-width apart.
  • Raise the right arm parallel to the floor and move it across the front of the body, with the upper arm coming in towards the chest.
  • Placing the left hand on the right elbow, pull the right arm further across the body.
  • The right elbow should be slightly bent, not be locked.
Hold the stretch for 20 seconds and repeat 3 times for each arm.

Towel Shoulder Stretch

  • Stand with feet shoulder-width apart. 
  • Hold a medium-size towel, or a stretchy exercise band, in the right hand.
  • Raise the right arm straight up and slightly behind the head, so that the towel extends down the back. (The right elbow may bend slightly.)
  • Reaching back with the left arm, grab the bottom of the towel.
  • Gently pull the towel upward with the right hand so that the left shoulder is stretched.
  • Hold for 20 seconds.
  • Next, pull the towel down with the left arm so that the right shoulder is stretched.
Repeat using opposite arms, holding the left arm above the head.


  1. Burbank K.M., Stevenson J.H., Czarnecki G.R., Dorfmon J., “Chronic Shoulder Pain: Part II. Treatment” American Family Physician. 2008 Feb 15; 77(4):493-497. Accessed September 2011 via www.aafp.org
Strengthening and conditioning the shoulder muscles increases the muscles’ ability to stabilize the ball-and-socket construction of the main shoulder joint, the glenohumeral joint. Joint stability minimizes the effects and progression of arthritis in the shoulder.

Lateral Raises

Lateral Raises Part 2
Figure 1b:
Lateral Raises Part 2
Lateral Raises Part 1
Figure 1a:
Lateral Raises
Part 1
  • Sit in a straight back chair with a 3-lb weight in each hand and arms hanging down at each side.
  • Rotate arms so that thumbs face outward, away from the body (this position will help ensure tendons do not become irritated).
  • In a slow, controlled manner, gently exhale and raise arms out to the sides. Thumbs should be facing up; elbows should be only slightly bent.
  • When arms are raised parallel to the ground, pause, and then inhale while slowly bringing arms down.
A reasonable goal is three sets of 12. Adjust the amount of weight to add or lessen the level of difficulty. Lateral raises may also be done while standing, with knees only slightly bent (3-5 degrees) and back straight.
Article continues below

Shoulder Press

Shoulder Press Part 1
Figure 2a:
Shoulder Press
Part 1
  • Sit in a straight-back chair holding a 3 lb. weight in each hand and arms hanging down at each side.
  • Raise upper arms out and parallel to the ground, with elbows bent at 90 degree angles and hand weights up - as if striking a pose to show off bicep muscles.
  • Holding the weights, palms and fingers should face inward toward the body. This is the starting position.
  • From this position, gently exhale while slowly raising the arms and straightening elbows, bringing the weights together overhead.
  • Pause briefly, and then inhale while returning back to the starting position.
  • A straight (not arched) back and contracted abdomen should be maintained throughout this exercise.
Shoulder Press Part 2
Figure 2b:
Shoulder Press
Part 2
A reasonable goal is three sets of 12. Adjust the amount of weight to add or lessen the level of difficulty.
Shoulder presses may also be done while standing, with knees only slightly bent (3-5 degrees). Whether standing or sitting, always maintain back straight and contracted abdomen.

In addition to specific stretching and strengthening exercises, most people with shoulder arthritis will benefit from a regular routine of low-impact aerobic exercise.
Most medical experts recommend an aerobic conditioning program that is tailored to the individual’s situation, including his or her level of arthritis pain and fitness level.

Aerobic Exercise for Shoulder Arthritis

Since the shoulder does not bear weight like the knees and hips, those suffering from shoulder arthritis can walk, jog, and use aerobic gym equipment such as treadmills.
Patients with moderate to advanced shoulder pain and stiffness may find it best to avoid aerobic exercise that involves use of the shoulder, such as using an elliptical trainer or swimming.
Article continues below
Patients with more advanced symptoms may find swimming too challenging but may try a water aerobics or other water exercise classes. For most, water therapy (pool therapy) is tolerable, affording aerobic health benefits without stressing the shoulder too much.
Exercising while in the water provides advantages, including:
  • Buoyancy, with the support of the water reducing pressure on joints
  • Resistance, requiring muscles to work harder to move (e.g. walking in waist-deep water is more difficult than walking on land).
Many local YMCAs and health clubs have pools and offer water exercise classes designed for people looking for a low-impact workout.
In This Article:
It is best to gradually increase the intensity of the aerobic workout, ideally in concert with recommendations from a physician or other qualified health professional.
The goal is to incorporate low impact aerobic exercise into one’s daily routine. The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends a minimum of 150 minutes of moderately intense aerobic activity each week, or 30 minutes five days per week. Individuals who can easily meet this goal can then increase the level of intensity of their workout.